These mostly cover the economic aspects of the game:viewtopic.php?f=326&t=36162
Hard to do one on the colonial game due to the relatively slow timescale involved. But basically build up your colonial penetration (merchants and then trade posts), add bribery when you can, then the more military options. Sooner or later you'll be in a position to make it into a colony. Missionaries are good for reducing revolt risks - which can possible cost you all your colonial buildings.
b) declare war!
It just means you can do this if you want to, but you can also ignore it. Some tend to repeat, such as if they occupy one of your objective provinces, some come from scripted events (usually a good idea to think about taking this up), some come from other diplo elements (promise support and defensive alliances both trigger CB if they are attacked - you'd better honour these or lose a lot of prestige) and some come the crisis event that pops up every now and then