Gen. William Howe
“The cadets at Sandhurst debate the correctness to replace Gage after a string of victories. This is done in a mock trial in which the general is put on charges. Points are made on both sides; the lack of supplies and the lack of decisive pursuit compose the main case against him. This mock trial is conducted every year and every year it gets the same result. While Gage is praised in highest regard the verdict is to replace him.”
From Sandhurst Diary,
“When the unhappy and deluded multitude, against whom this force will be directed, shall become more sensible of their error, I shall be ready to receive the misled with tenderness and mercy.”
--George III at Parliament October 26th 1775
• Newport Early September
: Gage settles into Newport with victorious but exhausted army. They are short of ammunition powder and basic stores. This has to do with the fact that Gage left the baggage train behind in Boston in order to increase his speed of march. He sends dispatches to Boston for Burgoyne to send relief column to re-supply his army.
• Boston Early September
: Burgoyne responds that supplies are on there way but rather by sea. Spies have reported that an amazingly resilient Washington has gathered reinforcements and is marching on Newport.
• Quebec September
: Loyal highlanders sent via bateaux to Montreal.
• St. John’s Canada September
: Prescott “requests” native raiders to move against Seth Warner and Mountain boys in northern Champlain.
• Virginia September
: Murray Lord Dunmore takes command of 2 new regiments outside of Norfolk. Orders proclamation that he will march on Williamsburg to: “arrest and hang the rebellious elements that now comprise the Assembly.” His regiment of freed slaves “Ethiopians” stitch “liberty” in their coats.
• Western New York Colony September
: Siege of Oswego continues, Rebels maintain blockade of town but little else is accomplished.
• Newport September 13th
: Frigate Daphne arrives with important dispatches from Boston and Britain. The first is that supplies will be arriving shortly, the second is even more important. Gage is recalled to London and William Howe is now named Commander in Chief of North America.
• Il de la Noix September 13th
Natives capture Champlain shipping as Rebels flee before them.
• Newport September 20th
: Richard Howe’s fleet arrives with supplies.
• Salisbury North Carolina Late September
: Loyalist capture town.
• Virginia Late September
: Dunmore captures Portsmouth, Petersburg and Richmond. Support for crown is on the rise in the colony.
• Newport September 30th
: Washington arrives with Rebel Army, Howe does not come out to meet him. Siege of Newport begins.
• Newport October
: Washington is highly successful in siege of Newport. Parallel trenches are dug quickly and artillery begins to pound Howe’s positions. Howe is slow to react and begins plans to counter rebels.
• Boston October
: Burgoyne receives request to relieve siege in Newport. Responds that he does not have enough men for the job, also that Ethan Allen is now in Cambridge with a force of irregulars threatening his position. Recommends to Howe to evacuate Newport and rejoin his own force in Boston for winter.
• Northern Colonies October
: Early storms are a harbinger of an early and harsh winter.
• Richmond Virginia October
: Dunmore launches raids on Williamsburg and Yorktown; he receives word that Assembly has fled. He uses his “Ethiopian” regiment to strike fear in the hearts of the rebels. He sets up his new capital at Richmond.
• Boston October 17th
: After his numerous pleas to the effect, Burgoyne is recalled to Britain to raise force to reinforce Canada. Brigadier Francis Smith is placed in command of Boston. Howe is livid when he hears the news; he was counting on Burgoyne to lead the relief effort of Newport.
• Norwich N.H October 25th
: Massacre of Norwich, Natives raid town and kill settlers, John Adams at the Continental Congress in Philadelphia calls this the “most despicable event in any age.”
• Virginia Late October
: Dunmore’s “Ethiopians” capture Williamsburg and Yorktown, despite encouragement the slaves in the tidewater area are slow to respond with any insurrection against their white masters. Rebel armies retake Portsmouth.
• London October 26th
: His Majesty addresses both houses of Parliament. Debates and resolutions are passed swiftly in the House of Commons afterwards. Resolutions include: Expansion of Army and Navy, negotiations to begin with German princes for mercenary forces. Affirmation of use of natives against rebellion, and plans for the colonies after rebellion is put down. Most of the House is for decisive action but several are against notably Edmund Burke. About this time Lord Germain officially takes over cabinet post of Secretary of the Colonies, replacing the Earl of Dartmouth, Germain unofficially has been acting in this capacity for months. By the months end provisions to raise a force of 20,000 regulars has been completed.
• Newport November
: Howe concedes that Newport is a bad position and begins preparation for evacuation to Boston by sea.
• Northern New England/New Colony November
: Natives continue raids toward southern Champlain area.
• Fort Niagara November
: Colonel Hamilton begins preparations to arm Iroquois league and solicit their aid against the rebellion.
• Oswego November
: Rebels abandon siege due to harsh weather.
• Newport November 5th
: Howe and his army slip away from Newport under the nose of the Continental army (with the aid of his brother Richard), arrive in Boston on the 18th. Use of straw soldiers and fake gun emplacements fool Washington.
• Virginia November
: Latter raids prove successful and large amounts of war stores are captured from the rebels. Emboldened Dunmore moves his “Ethiopians” south toward Norfolk and issues a proclamation offering emancipation to any slave willing to fight for his Majesty, this makes Tory planters and London very worried that Dunmore may not be the right man for the job as Governor. Dunmore has also ignored reports that large rebel forces are moving toward him to quell any slave revolt. This proclamation would put a serious dampener on Loyalist feeling in the colony for years to come.
• Fort Ninety-Six S. Carolina November:
Rebels besiege fort Ninety-Six. Siege is disorganized and ineffective.
• Quebec Late November
: Royal Green Regiment is raised, contains many Quebecois. Fear of French-Canadian uprising seems now unfounded.
• St. Edward New York November 25th:
In the biggest raid yet Natives surprise Henry Knox, who has a large supply train complete with over 50 pieces of artillery. This was being sent from Ticonderoga to join Washington in Rhode Island. Knox and about 50 survivors escape, but all of the stores and guns fall in the hands of the Natives.